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The Romanian Aerospace Association is a not-for-profit registred organization.

I like very much to communicate. That is because communication means to better know and understand each other. Born and raised on a small country farm at about 150-km from Romania’s capital city, Bucharest, my roots lay in rural country. I was attracted by keen sensitivity to nature, down-to-earth practicality combined with fervent idealism and poetry. I always wanted to see what was over the next hill and I also was a voracious reader and thus largely self-educated, gregarious and deeply interested in people. My first beginning to a flying job was some fifty-five years ago, if one counts from July the 27th, 1950, my birth date. Before venturing off into the wild blue yonder, and a dream to blossom and become fruitful, apparently it all started at about three years of age, with looking into the sky for any strangers to come down from their flying machines. Graduated my primary school at that farming village and continued it, and added secondary school studies in the nearby town of Buzãu, and aviation training for particularly the flying profession followed (that is an other three-year period of training time).

"The human factor will decide the fate of war, of all
wars. Not the Mirage, nor any other plane, and not the screwdriver, or the wrench or radar or missiles or all the newest technology and electronic innovations. Men—and not just men of action, but men of thought. Men for whom the expression 'By ruses shall ye make war' is a philosophy of life, not just the object of lip service."

Born in 1952 (April 17th), raised in a mixture of rural village and provincial town, Mr. TINEL CONSTANTINESCU has graduated as engineer at Universitatea Tehnică „Gh. Asachi” in Iași. He has previously graduated at Colegiul National "Costache Negruzzi" , Iasi. Mr. Constantinescu Tinel always had a keen interest in aerospace science, engineering and paranormal human behaviour... He is a real friend when you are in need, scrupulous entrepreneur, with huge attention payed to the detail and a very young spirit.

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The words ‘manager’ or ‘boss’ and ‘leader’ are not synonymous. The differences are sometimes subtle, sometimes great. Warren Bennis, an American leadership guru, has written many books on the topic. Bennis defines the following differences between managers and leaders: The manager administers, the leader innovates. The manager is a copy [of other managers], the leader is an original. The manager maintains, the leader develops. The manager focuses on systems and structure, the leader focuses on people. The manager relies on control, the leader inspires trust. The manager takes a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective. The manager’s eye is always on the bottom line, the leader’s eyes are on the horizon. The manager does things right, the leader does the right thing.

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joi, 12 iunie 2014

Tu-142 Bear F LRMP/ASW
  Ту-142 Противолодочный самолет

The Tu-142 Bear F is the largest LRMP and ASW aircraft ever built, and one of the highest performing. A number of subtypes exist, and its airframe was the basis for the most recent Bear H strike variant.

Tu-142MR 'Orel' Bear J ELF C3 Relay
  Ту-142МР 'Орел' Самолет-ретранслятор

The Tu-142MR 'Orel' [Eagle] Bear J is Russia's TACAMO, providing a communications relay capability to submerged SSBNs, SSGNs and SSNs. It is based on the Bear F airframe but has unique systems. The ventral fairing contains the VLF antenna cable reel, also note the unique nose radome and antenna on the vertical tail.

Tu-16K-26/K-10-26 Badger C Maritime Strike
 Ту-16К-26/К-10-26 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец

Development of the Tu-16K-10 Badger C started in 1955, the aim being to produce a maritime strike variant capable of carrying the then new Raduga K-10S Luga-S / AS-2 Kipper cruise missile and YeN Puff Ball attack radar designed to support the missile. The starting point was the Tu-16KS Badger B, armed with with the KS-1 Kometa / AS-1 Kennel cruise missile on wing pylon BD-187  launch adaptors, and the Kobalt N fire control system, the weapon system first deployed on the Tu-4 Bull (B-29).  The KS-1 was a derivative of the MiG-15 airframe. 

The new Tu-16K-10 was a major redesign, with the nose resculpted to accommodate the bulbous radome for the YeN, and a revised operator station for the weapon system. The radome geometry was designed to provide significant off-boresight field of regard for the YeN antenna, to permit the Badger to turn away after a missile shot. The K-10S was carried semiconformally on a centreline BD-238 adaptor, and the fuel tank arrangement was modified. A ventral command link antenna was mounted under radome. The design entered service in 1961. A series of progressive block upgrades followed through the life of the design.

The K-26 weapon system was retrofitted in 1969, producing the Tu-16K-26, Tu-16K-10-26, and Tu-16K-10-26B Badger C (Mod) variants. The Leninetz Rubin-1KV Short Horn attack radar was retrofitted to support the Raduga KSR-5 / AS-6 Kingfish supersonic ASCM, carried on the BD-487 pylon adaptor. The KSR-5 was a scaled down derivative of the Kh-22 carried by the Tu-22 Blinder and then new Tu-22M Backfire, powered by the smaller S5.33 dual chamber liquid propellant rocket.

The Tu-16K-10-26 variant could carry two KSR-5 ASCMs, and one centreline K-10SN Kipper ECM drone. The Tu-16K-26 could carry two KSR-5 ASCMs and one centreline KSR-2 / AS-5A Kelt or KSR-11 / AS-5B Kelt anti-radiation missile. A typical warload was a single KSR-5.

The Tu-16K-10-26B subtype was further equipped with bomb racks and the OBP-1RU optical bombsight. Russian sources are not clear on whether the improved 240 NMI range Rubin-1M Short Horn attack radar was later retrofitted to the Badger C.

The KSR-11 anti-radiation variant of the Kelt was targeted using the Ritsa homing receiver, which used a nose mounted 8 element interferometer antenna, usually in an inverted T arrangement. It was later replaced with the VSP-K / L-067 Taifun homing receiver in the Tu-16K-10-26P subtype. 

Tu-16K-10 Badger C armed with the  Raduga K-10 / AS-2 Kipper cruise missile.

A K-10 Kipper ASCM being loaded on a Badger C (RuMoD).

The Tu-16K-26, Tu-16K-10-26, and Tu-16K-10-26B Badger C (Mod) variants were equipped with the new Leninetz Rubin-1KV Short Horn attack radar  to support the Raduga KSR-5 / AS-6 Kingfish supersonic ASCM. The missile was based on the large Kh-22 / AS-4 Kitchen.

Tu-16RM/RM-1 Badger D Maritime ReconnaissanceТу-16РM/РM-1 Разведчик 

The Tu-16RM variant was a dedicated maritime reconnaissance subtype, based on the Badger C. Intended to form the 'Hunter' component of a 'hunter-killer' mix with the Badger C, it is easily distinguished by the absence of missile pylons and the installation of ventral SRS-1M and SRS-4 Romb (Project 30) ESM receiver radomes. These aircraft were equipped with the improved YeN-R Puff Ball, credited with 180 kW peak power and a detection range of 260 NMI. Additional fuel was carried. Around 20 Badger Cs were converted to this configuration.

Tu-16K-11/K-11-16/K-16-26 Badger G Maritime Strike
Ту-16К-11/К-11-16/K-16-26 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец 

Tu-16K-16-26 Badger G variant equipped with the K-26 weapon system and the KSR-5N / AS-6 Kingfish supersonic ASCM.

The Tu-16K-16 Badger G was a block upgrade of the earlier Tu-16KS Badger B, designed to support the KSR-2 / AS-5A Kelt ASCM. Development was initiated almost concurrently with the Badger C, while the KSR-2 was still designated the K-16. The upgrade saw the removal of the KS-1 Kennel weapon system, and retrofit of the new Rubin-1 Short Horn attack radar, DISS-1 Doppler nav, AP-6E autopilot and BD-352 pylon launchers. The Tu-16K-16 Badger G was exported to Egypt and used against Israel.

The development of the K-11 weapon system, based on the anti-radiation homing KSR-2P / KSR-11 / AS-5B Kelt ASCM, led to the Tu-16K-11-16 variant, also equipped with the basic Kelt weapon system. To target the anti-radiation variants of the missile, the nose mounted Ritsa homing receiver was fitted (refer Badger C).

The third evolution of the Badger G was the Tu-16K-16-26 variant, which introduced the K-26 weapon system and the KSR-5N / AS-6 Kingfish supersonic ASCM, and a comprehensive avionic and systems mid life upgrade. Initially this variant was designated the Ту-16КСР-2-5 / Tu-16KSR-2-5. Most of these aircraft retained the legacy nose radome arrangement, but using an improved Leninetz Rubin-1K Short Horn attack radar, which limited acquisition range to 130 NMI due to antenna size.

Badger G aircraft equipped with the Ritsa RHAW acquired during the 1970s the capability to also carry the newer anti-radiation variant of the KSR-5, the KSR-5P.

Some Badger Gs were also equipped with the 240 NMI range Rubin-1M attack radar mounted under a bulbous centre-section ventral radome. This solution was required to fit the larger high gain antenna package transplanted from the Berkut surface search radar, otherwise used in the Il-38 May LRMP aircraft.  The latter Badger G variant could target shipping at the maximum range of the KSR-5 Kingfish.

Badger G variant equipped with the 240 NMI range increased aperture Rubin-1M attack radar mounted under a bulbous centre-section ventral radome.

Above: Ritsa RHAW dual-baseline interferometer array used for precision emitter bearing measurements. Below: A pair of AV-MF Tu-16K-11-26P Badger G maritime defence suppression aircraft equipped with the Ritsa RHAW and KSR-5PM anti-radiation missiles. Note  the distinctive white AV-MF camouflage paint. This image is unusual as it shows the maximum loadout of two rounds, typically not carried due to range limitations

Above, below: Egyptian Tu-16K-16 Badger G were armed with KSR-2 / AS-5 Kelt ASCMs.

Tu-16R Badger E/F Tactical Reconnaissance / ELINT
Ту-16Р Тактический Разведчик / Cамолет электронной разведки

The Tu-16R Badger E is an ELINT / maritime reconnaissance conversion of the baseline Badger A airframe, equipped with RBP-4 or RBP-6 search radar, and the SRS-1 or SRS-3 ESM receivers. The designation Badger F is usually reserved for the Tu-16R configuration equipped with a podded ESM receiver package. The size and shape of these pods suggests these are related to the podded L-080/081 series Fantasmagoria ESM receivers carried by the Fencer. Some configurations were equipped with optical cameras, and the 75 cm focal length NAFA-MK-75 system for night photography.

Tu-16SPS/Yolka/Ye Badger H/K Electronic Combat Variants
  Ту-16СПС/Ёлка/E Самолети РЭБ и Электронной разведки

The Soviets deployed a wide range of electronic combat variants of the Badger, and subjected most to various upgrades through their service life. There is little agreement between open sources on the specific configuration of particular subtypes.

The Tu-16SPS was the first support jamming variant, equipped with the SRS-1BV and SRS-1D countermeasures receivers, and the SPS-1 low band jammer rated at 120 Watts, and SPS-2 mid band jammer rated at 300 Watts.

The Tu-16 Yolka / Badger H was a chaff bomber, with a suite of automatic ASO-16 chaff dispensers in the bomb bay, and an SPS-4M Klyukva jammer later installed.

Tu-16P Buket Badger J Electronic Combat
Ту-16П Букет Самолет РЭБ и Электронной разведки

The Badger J was the AV-MF equivalent of the EA-6B and EF-111A support jammers, equipped with a bomb bay mounted ventral canoe shaped radome for a suite of steerable jammer emitters. Most were converted from earlier support jamming variants. The tactical jamming system comprised the SPS-22N / SPS-33N / SPS-44N / SPS-55N and SPS-77 Buket, with  range of deception and noise jamming modes in several bands. Russian sources claim that in 1972 the Buket was enhanced with the capability to focus its power into a narrow beam, probably by driving multiple emitters coherently and using them as a phased array, the upgrade applied to ten aircraft under the designation of "Fikus". During the 1960s some aircraft were also equipped with SPS-100A and SPS-100M high power noise jammers. Some were equipped with the SPS-120 Kaktus jammer, mounted in the bomb bay.

Russian sources claim that some of these aircraft were fitted during the 1970s with SPS-151/152/153 Lyutik self protection jammers, common to the MiG-25RBV and MiG-25BM Foxbat, and the Tu-95K-22 Bear G. This equipment used the same antenna arrangement and tailcone fairing as the Azaliya equipped Badger L.

As with the Badger L, there is considerable disagreement between open sources on the equipment fit in the Badger J series of EW subtypes 

Tu-16Ye/YeR/P/PN/PP Azaliya Badger L Electronic Combat
 Ту-16E/EР/П/ПH/ПП Азалия Самолети РЭБ и Электронной разведки

Several configurations of the Tu-16Ye have been reported, equipped with SPS-6 Los and SPS-61, SPS-62, SPS-63 Azaliya jammers. Another configuration used the SPS-5 Fasol noise jammer and SPS-64, SPS-65, SPS-66 Azaliya jammers. Some aircraft were also equipped with SPS-100A and SPS-100M high power noise jammers.

Russian sources claim that many of these aircraft were equipped during the 1970s with SPS-151/152/153 Lyutik self protection jammers, common to the MiG-25RBV,  MiG-25BM Foxbat and Tu-95K-22 Bear G. This equipment used emitters in the nose thimble radome, the antennas below the inlets, and the unique tailcone fairing which replaced the 23 mm gun equipped DK-7 tail turret.

Some aircraft have been photographed with chaff dispensing pods, other podded ESM receivers identical to the type carried by the Badger F. The Tu-16YeR was an electronic reconnaissance adaptation using the SRS-1 ELINT receiver instead of the SPS-2 installation.

The SPS-61R, SPS-63R Azaliya X-band jammers are also reported as equipment in the K-10SP powered ECM drone, launched by the Tu-16K-10 Badger C.

There is considerable disagreement between open sources on the equipment fit in the Badger L series of EW subtypes - the aircraft is often credited with carrying components of the Buket suite. The ventral blister radomes are characteristic of the mid and high band components of the SRS-1 and SRS-4 ESM receivers used in various reconnaissance subtypes. 

Tu-22M2 Backfire B
 Ту-22M2 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец

The underpowered Tu-22M2 Backfire B was the first production model, or which over 200 were built (US DoD).
Image via Wikipedia

Tu-22M3 Backfire C
Ту-22M3 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец

Technical Report APA-TR-2007-0701
Tupolev Tu-22M3 Backfire C Bomber -  missile carrier [Click for more ...]

Image via Wikipedia

Image via Wikipedia
The centreline Kh-22 store is carried semi-conformally, with sculpted bomb bay doors to accommodate the weapon. The bomb bay rotary launcher is otherwise used for a range of weapons (US DoD).
Outboard glove station BD-45K adaptors are used to carry a pair of external Kh-22 rounds, but can be replaced with bomb racks for up to 3 tonnes of free fall bombs. (via Wikipedia).

The Kh-15 / AS-16 Kickback is the Russian equivalent to SAC's AGM-69 SRAM. Note the maritime strike CONOPS uses offboard targeting provided by the Tu-95RTs Bear D Uspekh / Big Bulge X-band surveillance and targeting radar (via

Above: The four crew members sit on ejection seats as in the B-1B, with individual hatches, an arrangement not unlike the F-111 (RuAF). The conventional instrumentation in the cockpit reflects the late Soviet era design heritage of the Backfire. A glass cockpit upgrade following the Su-27SKU model is a feasible option. Below: Admiral Charles R. Larson, Commander in Chief, US Pacific Fleet, sits in the cockpit of a Soviet Tu-22M Backfire aircraft during a visit to a Soviet air base during the latter Cold War period (US DoD).

Above: Aft Offensive and Defensive Systems Operator stations. Below: crew access hatches (via

Index of Variants


  1. Kopp, C., Air Power Australia - May 2007 - Bypassing the National Missile Defence System - The Cruise Missile Proliferation Problem
  2. Kopp, C., Air Power Australia - January 2007 - Regional Precision Guided Munitions
  3. Kopp, C., Kopp, C., Air Power Australia - January 2007 - Xian H-6 Badger
  4. The International Assessment and Strategy Center -  September 22nd, 2004 -  Backfires and the PLA-AF's New 'Strategic Air Force'
  5. Kopp, C., The International Assessment and Strategy Center -  June 22nd,  2006 -  Bypassing the NMD: China and the Cruise Missile Proliferation Problem
  6. Kopp, C., R.D. Fisher - The International Assessment and Strategy Center - February 7th - China's "New" Bomber [Xian H-6K Badger]
  7. Kopp, C., Australian Aviation  - July 1988 - Maritime Strike - The Soviet Perspective
  8. Kopp, C., Australian Aviation  - September 2000 - Sunburns, Yakhonts, Alfas and the Region (PDF)
  9. Kopp, C., Australian Aviation  - July 2004 - Asia's Advanced Precision Guided Munitions
  10. Kopp, C., Australian Aviation  - August 2004 - The Sleeping Giant Awakens (PLA-AF/PLA-N)
  11. Kopp, C., Australian Aviation  - September 2004 - Backfires for China?
  12. Kopp, C., Australian Aviation  - October 2004 - Defeating Cruise Missiles (PDF)
  13. Wendell Minnick - Defense News - 19/03/2007 - CHINA RISING: East Asia Braces as American Influence Fades
  14. Kopp, C., Defence Today - January/February 2006  - Regional Developments 2005
  15. Roman Astakhoff - Ту-16 ДАЛЬНИЙ БОМБАРДИРОВЩИК И РАКЕТОНОСЕЦ @ Russian Power
  16. Roman Astakhoff - Ту-22М ДАЛЬНИЙ БОМБАРДИРОВЩИК И РАКЕТОНОСЕЦ @ Russian Power
  18. Roman Astakhoff - Ту-142 ПРОТИВОЛОДОЧНЫЙ САМОЛЕТ@ Russian Power
  19. Туполев  ТУ-22М3 Дальний бомбардировщик @ Уголок небa
  20. Туполев  ТУ-95K-22 Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец @ Уголок небa
  21. Туполев  ТУ-16 Бомбардировщик средней дальности@ Уголок небa
  22. Туполев  ТУ-16А Стратегический бомбардировщик@ Уголок небa
  23. Туполев  ТУ-16Б Средний бомбардировщик@ Уголок небa
  24. Туполев  ТУ-16К-10 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец средней дальности@ Уголок небa
  25. Туполев  ТУ-16К-11-16 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец средней дальности@ Уголок небa
  26. Туполев  ТУ-16К-26 Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец средней дальности@ Уголок небa
  27. Туполев  ТУ-16КС Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец средней дальности@ Уголок небa
  28. Туполев  ТУ-16КСР Бомбардировщик-ракетоносец средней дальности@ Уголок небa
  29. Туполев  ТУ-16СПС Самолет РЭБ @ Уголок небa
  30. Туполев  ТУ-16Е ЕЛКА Самолет РЭБ @ Уголок небa
  31. Туполев  ТУ-16П БУКЕТ Самолет РЭБ @ Уголок небa
  32. Туполев  ТУ-16Р Разведывательный самолет @ Уголок небa
  33. Туполев  ТУ-16РМ Разведывательный самолет @ Уголок небa
  34. Туполев  ТУ-95 Стратегический бомбардировщик@ Уголок небa
  35. Туполев  ТУ-95А Стратегический бомбардировщик@ Уголок небa
  36. Туполев  ТУ-95В Стратегический бомбардировщик@ Уголок небa
  37. Туполев  ТУ-95К Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец@ Уголок небa
  38. Туполев  ТУ-95К-10 Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец@ Уголок небa
  39. Туполев  ТУ-95КД Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец@ Уголок небa
  40. Туполев  ТУ-95КМ Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец@ Уголок небa
  41. Туполев  ТУ-95М Стратегический бомбардировщик@ Уголок небa
  42. Туполев  ТУ-95М-5 Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец@ Уголок небa
  43. Туполев  ТУ-95М-55 Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец@ Уголок небa
  44. Туполев  ТУ-95МА Стратегический бомбардировщик-ракетоносец@ Уголок небa
  45. Туполев  ТУ-95Н Стратегический бомбардировщик@ Уголок небa
  46. Туполев  ТУ-95МР Дальний (морской) разведчик@ Уголок небa
  47. Туполев  ТУ-95РЦ Самолет дальней разведки и целеуказания@ Уголок небa

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The Romanian Aerospace Association is a Romanian incorporated non-profit organization.
Here are some of the RAA's short and long term goals:
To be a strong voice in the aerospace field of activity.
To promote knowledge and uphold a high standard of knowledge and professional efficiency among aerospace enthusiasts.
To closely cooperate with authorities and institutions concerned with aerospace training, industry and business.
To sponsor and support the passage of legislation and regulations which will increase and protect the safety of air navigation, to promote safety.
To support the way forward for a comprehensive air passenger right policy.
To approach the small and large companies of the sector.
To optimize resources and efforts.
To serve as springboard to develop the training in the aerospace sector.
To serve as negotiator and spoke voice to the various Administrations.
To achieve a greater implementation of the air companies in the training of the own staff.
To accomplish diffusion campaigns of the officially regulated courses to students in order to attract and get future training.
To extend the acceptance capacity of the students.
To arrange training courses in the facilities of the air companies.
To improve the continuous training of the teaching staff.


Dear Aerospace Colleague,

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Now you can join a select group of professionals who have excellent experience and exclusive insights into theoretical and practical aerospace science. The aim of this unique gathering of expertise is to help you develop, implement and maintain effective strategies for survival and growth in increasingly competitive markets. Of course globalisation, e-commerce and lightning speed of change have revolutionised the aerospace business world tremendously. For today's senior manager, effective strategic thinking is the difference between company success and failure.
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Mission of Romanian Aerospace Association

- To organise high level aerospace events & summits internationally

- To provide the bridge between aviation professionals and new networks and opportunities

- To enhance the exchange of information and knowledge in the aerospace industry

- To establish a forum for information and professional networking

- To promote aerospace professionals and institutions nationally & internationally

- To identify new business opportunities

- To provide the forum for national & international aerospace networking and debate

- To contribute to the education of both the aerospace novice and professionals as well

- To explore local and international knowledge and understanding

- To be the ideal international network of information exchange and collaboration